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This HACCP-approved course discusses the different food safety risk factors present in food preparation, the types of food hazards you need to look out for, and some general safety practices you can implement to protect our customers.
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Food Safety Risk Factors Food Safety Hazards
Consistently meeting food safety standards is one of the most important qualities an establishment can have more than just serving delicious food.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 1 in 10 people falls ill due to food poisoning every year, with some suffering long-term health problems including cancer and neurological disorders.
While it may be impossible to completely eradicate food safety risks, taking the right steps to keep them at an absolute minimum will always be our responsibility.
Lesson Objectives In this lesson, we will... Enumerate what to look out for during food preparation, Discuss some precautions during food preparation, Show how to handle food before, during, and after cooking to avoid contamination and other safety hazards.
Notes on Food Safety Since food production and trade have gone global, food safety has become much more complex. As a general rule, we must always be able to trace our food back to its original manufacturer, packager, or distributor. Never accept and use food unless you can identify and trace it back to its source. When checking food packages from suppliers, there are some things you must also watch out for to avoid food hazards.
Which of the following is considered a good practice before food preparation?
Be wary of pathogens Neglecting our personal and kitchen hygiene puts the food at a greater risk of contamination and will result in food poisoning. Examples of these pathogens are harmful bacteria, viruses, and toxins.
Hand Hygiene Always wash your hands with warm water and soap for at least 20 seconds before preparing a dish. If you've handled uncooked eggs, raw meat, poultry, fish, and their juices, you must also wash your hands in between food preparations.
Kitchen Hygiene Wash kitchen surfaces with hot, soapy water or a solution of 1 tablespoon of unscented, liquid chlorine bleach per gallon of water. Allow surfaces to stand for several minutes before drying it with disposable paper towels.
Ground Beef and Pork Cooked to at least 71°C (160°F)
Whole Cuts of Beef, Pork, Veal, and Lamb Cooked to at least 62.7°C (145°F) Additionally, they should be allowed to rest for 3 minutes before carving and serving.
Poultry and Vegetables Cooked to at least 73.8°C (165°F)
Fish Cooked to at least 62.7°C (145°F)
Casseroles Cooked to at least 73.8°C (165°F)
Hot foods These need to be kept at an internal temperature of 60°C (140°F) or warmer to avoid bacterial growth. Before hot holding, check the warmer's product label to ensure that it can hold foods at this temperature or warmer.
Cold foods These need to be held at 4°C (40°F) or colder. Keep cold foods refrigerated until serving time. If cold food needs to stay out on a buffet table for more than 2 hours, cold food plates must be placed on ice to retain cold temperatures.
After Cooking Precautions to Avoid Food Contamination
Handling leftovers Leftovers must be refrigerated within 2 hours after the food has reached room temperature. Perishables left out at room temperature for more than 2 hours must be discarded unless they are being kept hot or cold.
Refrigeration When refrigerating leftovers, make sure that raw food is stored at the bottom of the fridge or freezer. This prevents raw meat juices from dripping onto and possibly contaminating cooked foods.
Check the packaging Ensure that cooked foods are placed in covered containers or wrapped in air-tight packaging to keep bacteria out.
Allergenic and Physical Food Hazards Food Safety Hazards
It is estimated that 32 million people in the U.S alone have food allergies, and more than 170 foods have been reported to cause allergic reactions.
Over 2.6 million people in Canada, including an estimated 500,000 children live with allergies that need to be managed on a daily basis.
Lesson Objectives In this lesson, we will discuss... What is a food allergy and its severity, Some preventive measures to take for customers with allergies, The staff's responsibilities as someone who handles food, How to prevent allergen cross-contamination, and Preventive food hazards from food manufacturers.
Food Allergies A food allergy is a detrimental immune reaction triggered by a person's exposure to certain types of food. An allergic reaction can be classified as mild, moderate, or severe. The most common allergens, also called "primary allergens" are: Peanut Tree nut Milk Shellfish Wheat Sesame Soy
Preventing Allergenic Food Hazards What can we do to protect our customers?
Always have allergen-free options. We should always be ready to accept and prepare allergen-free meal requests to accommodate the needs of our customers.
Know what goes into the customer's food. This is always the first step to protect our customers from allergenic hazards. Look out for these primary allergens: Peanut Tree nut Milk Shellfish Wheat Sesame Soy
Check food labels and ingredient lists. Do this, especially for food that was pre-packed or purchased off-site. Watch out for potential allergens listed under different names: "casein" for milk "tempeh" for soy
When preparing allergen-free food: Do not use an ingredient or product if it is unlabeled and you are unsure of its composition. Check with suppliers when food products are reformulated to ensure that new recipes won't introduce an allergen.
How can we prevent allergen cross-contamination? Keep a designated allergen-free meal preparation area set aside. Don't forget to clean and sanitize the area after each use to remove allergen residues. 2. ## Only use clean and sanitized utensils when storing, preparing, or serving an allergen-free meal. Don't forget to clean and sanitize surfaces, equipment, and utensils between uses. 3. ## Don't substitute one ingredient for another as the customer may have an undisclosed allergy. 4. ## When preparing an allergen-free meal, make it fresh and prepare it first. Don't hesitate to consult the customer about suitable and preferred preparation methods.
Preventing Physical Food Hazards What are control measures to lower the risk of physical food hazards?
Fingernails, False Nails and/or Nail Polish
Fragments or Shards of Broken Bone
Physical Food Hazards in Food Manufacturing Sometimes, physical food hazards come from poor manufacturing conditions and practices. This is why it's important that we check the contents of canned and pre-packaged foods before using them. Aside from this, we can also take the following steps to prevent physical food hazards... Eliminate potential sources of physical food hazards by clearing the kitchen of items unnecessary for operations. Wear gloves and a hairnet to avoid physical food hazards such as fingernails and hair from falling onto dishes. Regularly inspect storage room and stocks to identify possible insect or rodent infestations so they can be addressed ASAP.
Biological & Chemical Food Hazards Food Safety Hazards
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 600 million people fall ill due to foodborne illnesses every year.
The consumption of contaminated food results in 420,000 deaths a year.
There are more than 200 diseases linked to food poisoning, ranging from diarrhea to cancers. This lesson will show you how to avoid these worst-case scenarios.
Lesson Objectives In this lesson, we will discuss... What biological food hazards are, How to prevent the occurrence of these biological hazards, What chemical food hazards are, and Some preventive measures to avoid food poisoning induced by chemical hazards.
Biological Food Hazards What are they and where do they come from?
Bacteria Bacteria are single-celled organisms that can be found anywhere, even in our own bodies.
Viruses A virus is a bundle of genetic code, (either DNA or RNA), coated in protein. They can be found anywhere, and are more abundant than bacteria by a ratio of 10:1.
Parasites Some of the most common human parasites are amoeba, scabies, and hookworms. Parasitism is a kind of relationship between two organisms wherein an organism, a parasite, lives inside another organism, a host (ex. humans).
These pathogens are responsible for some of the deadliest biological hazards currently known such as: Salmonella E. Coli Clostridium botulinum
Biological Food Hazard Prevention How can we minimize the risk for our customers?
1st Precaution Cooking at the Right Temperature Cooking at the recommended temperature for each food type in order to kill harmful pathogens. Review the following temperature requirements...
2nd Precaution Practicing Good Personal Hygiene Remember to wash your hands with warm water and soap for at least 20 seconds.
3rd Precaution Practicing Good Kitchen Hygiene Clean and sanitize all kitchen surfaces and utensils with hot, soapy water. This includes faucets, countertops, cutting boards, and food thermometers. Never use the same platter and utensils for raw and cooked products to prevent cross-contamination.
4th Precaution Storing Food in Proper Temperatures The Refrigerator should be set to 5°C (41°F). The Freezer should be set below -15°C (5°F). These are done to slow down bacterial growth and extend the shelf life of food.
Chemical Food Hazards What are they and where do they come from?
1st Type Naturally Occurring These are natural toxins produced by plants, animals, and certain types of microorganisms.
2nd Type Intentionally Added This refers to chemicals added to food that exceed safe limits according to government-sanctioned regulations e.g. Food and Drugs Act
3rd Type Unintentionally Added This refers to chemicals that were accidentally added to the food during food preparation, e.g. cleaning chemicals, pesticides.
Take Caution! Ingesting a sufficient dose of chemical hazards may lead to chemical poisoning, resulting in illness, or in some cases, even death.
Chemical Food Hazards Preventive Measures Staff training Train kitchen and service staff to follow safe handling procedures when dealing with chemicals for sanitation and maintenance. 2. ## Ensure cleanliness on food contact surfaces Make sure that there is no chemical residue left on food contact surfaces before any dishes are prepared. 3. ## Store chemicals properly Store chemicals in designated cabinets and areas away from food and food preparation areas.
I couldnt swipe on my lap top so cound't answer the questions at the end!!