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Confinement itself may pose entrapment hazards and work in confined spaces may keep employees closer to hazards such as machinery components than they would be otherwise. Confinement, limited access and restricted airflow can result in hazardous conditions that would not normally arise in an open workplace.
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What are confined spaces?
## Many workplaces contain areas that are considered "confined spaces" because while they are not necessarily designed for people, they are large enough for workers to enter and perform certain jobs.
A confined space also has limited or restricted means for entry or exit and is not designed for continuous occupancy.
Can you select the confined space from the options below?
A confined space has one or more of the following... contains or has the potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere. ## Contains material that has the potential to engulf an entrant ## Has walls that converge inward or floors that slope downward and taper into a smaller area which could trap or asphyxiate an entrant. ## Contains any other recognized safety or health hazard, such as unguarded machinery, exposed live wires, or heat stress.
Before the initial work assignment begins, the employer must provide proper training for all workers who are required to work in permit spaces.
## After the training, employers must ensure that the employees have acquired the understanding, knowledge and skills necessary to safely perform their duties.
When do you think additional training should be required?
Authorized entrant -- Attendant -- Entry supervisor
## Authorized entrants are required to know space hazards, including information on the means of exposure such as inhalation or dermal absorption, signs of symptoms and consequences of the exposure.
## Authorized entrants should always use appropriate personal protective equipment properly.
Authorized entrants should maintain communication with attendants as necessary to enable them to monitor the entrant’s status and alert the entrant to evacuate when necessary.
You should exit from a permit space as soon as possible when?
Similar to an a Authorized entrant an Attendant should order evacuation of the permit space when... ## A prohibited condition exists ## A worker shows signs of physiological effects of hazard exposure ## An emergency outside the confined space exists and the attendant cannot effectively and safely perform required duties.
Entry supervisors are required to... Know space hazards including information on the mode of exposure, signs or symptoms and consequences ## Take appropriate measures to remove unauthorized entrants ## Ensure that entry operations remain consistent with the entry permit and that acceptable entry conditions are maintained
Your employer’s written program should establish the means, procedures and practices to eliminate or control hazards necessary for safe permit space entry operations. These may include...
Specifying acceptable entry conditions
Isolating the permit space
# Verifying acceptable entry conditions
Equipment for safe entry
Detection of hazardous conditions
When entry to permit spaces is prohibited, the employer must take effective measures to prevent unauthorized entry.
## Non-permit confined spaces must be evaluated when changes occur in their use or configuration and, where appropriate, must be reclassified as permit spaces.
If entry is required to eliminate hazards and obtain data, the employer must follow specific procedures in the standard.
Rescue service personnel
What should rescue service personnel be provided with?
## The standard also requires that all rescuers be trained in first aid and CPR.
Employers must ensure that practice rescue exercises are performed yearly and that rescue services are provided access to permit spaces so they can practice rescue operations.
## Rescuers also must be informed of the hazards of the permit space.
Harnesses and retrieval lines
Authorized entrants who enter a permit space must wear a chest or full body harness with a retrieval line attached to the center of their backs near shoulder level or above their heads.